Dystocia is a difficult or abnormal foaling.
Most often, it is due to abnormal foetal lie or presentation of the foal that blocks the smooth running of the expulsion phase.
A timely and coordinated response between medical and surgical team is essential to improve the prognosis of the mare and foal.
If the standing extraction of the foal is notpossible, the mare is anesthetized and hind limbs raised in the winch, to repositionthe foal. Caesarean section may be required.
Perineal lacerations and recto-vaginal fistula are problems with foaling. In most cases, without surgery reproductive prognosis is compromised.
In males, urinary stones, and amputation of the penis are problems where surgical intervention is required.